- Scope of Damage Control
- Damage control comprises the entire system of maintaining watertight integrity, controlling stability, repairing damage, providing for defense against gas, and caring for injured personnel. It deals with material, personnel, operations, methods and organization.
- Importance of Preparation
- The control of damage is dependent, to a great extent, upon the measures taken prior to action to reduce and localize the effects of collision, grounding, or the casualties of battle. The prevention of the spread of water, fire and gas within the ship by closing all openings and the elimination of inflammable material is greatly aided by the care with which the damage control preparation for war and battle is made as covered by the Strip Ship Bill and the Clear Ship for Action Bill in later sections of this chapter.
- Responsibility for Organization
- All heads of departments and division officers are responsible for the phases of damage control coming within the limits of their departments and divisions. The Damage Control Officer, however, is the coordinator of the various phases of damage control and he shall be responsible under the supervision of the Executive Officer for satisfactory organization and a master bill for carrying out efficiently all phases of damage control. Heads of departments and division officers shall cooperate to the fullest extent with the Damage Control Officer in all matters relating to damage control.
- Compartmentation Integrity and Stability Control
- Watertight, airtight and fumetight integrity are important functions of damage control. Watertight integrity insures the buoyancy and stability of the ship, and the maintenance of minimum list and proper trim. Airtight and fumetight integrity contribute to the necessary protection against gas attack.
- In connection with watertight integrity the Damage Control Officer coordinates the various phases of stability control. In battle he is in direct charge of the control of stability. He shall assemble all pertinent data in Damage Control Central. He shall maintain the Construction Department personnel in an efficient state of training relative to the handling of water in the ship to meet the needs of stability control.
- Division Damage Control Bills
- Division officers shall prepare and keep posted in their parts of the ship
Division Damage Control Bills based on the information found in the Damage Control
Book. These bills shall organize their divisions into groups by name for the
performance of damage control duties. Division Damage Control Bills shall show the
duties of each group for:-
- Clear Ship for Action.
- Set Material Condition "B" (Baker).
- Set Material Condition "A" (Afirm).
- Division officers shall prepare and keep posted in their parts of the ship Division Damage Control Bills based on the information found in the Damage Control Book. These bills shall organize their divisions into groups by name for the performance of damage control duties. Division Damage Control Bills shall show the duties of each group for:-
- Scope of Damage Control
- STRIP SHIP AND CLEAR SHIP
- It is well recognized that in order to prevent the spread of water, afire and gas within the ship it is necessary to close all openings and to eliminate inflammable materials. It logically follows that control of damage is largely dependent upon taking measures, prior to an action, to reduce and localize the effects of damage from gunfire or gas attack. In addition it is necessary when action is imminent to rig for battle. These measures are covered under two headings: "Strip Ship for Action" and "Clear Ship for Action".
- Strip Ship Bill
- The Strip Ship Bill covers those items which are required to be done on mobilization,
together with certain additional items which it may be necessary to do at regular
intervals during war but which, by virtue of the time required to accomplish them, cannot
be done when material condition "B" is ordered. The bill shall be prepared to
accomplish the landing and stowage of material and alteration of certain peacetime
conditions, in order to prepare the ship for wartime conditions. The bill should be as
definite as planning will permit. Care must be taken to avoid premature decisions with
regard to items of material and work which may be subject to modification depending on
the type of campaign, climate, and probable area of operations. As a drill for strip ship
cannot be held, no detailed compartment nor division check-off lists need be posted. Each
department will list the various items by number, the location of the item by compartment,
the division responsible for action, and the disposition. The following is a list of items
by number, together with disposition, and represents the minimum which should be included
in the Strip Ship Bill:-
Item No. Item Disposition 1. Target ammunition. Land at Base. 2. Boats. Retain unless otherwise directed by CABF. 3. Flight deck and gun gallery awnings and other canvas except weather cloths. Land at Base. Gun gallery awnings to be retained if prolonged stay in tropics is probable. 4. Ridge ropes; upper sections of stanchions, all other awning fittings. Land at Base. Gun gallery awnings to be retained if prolonged stay in tropics is probable. 5. Miscellaneous stanchions not required, including wooden battens in the store rooms. Land at Base. 6. Movie equipment (except portable machines). Land at Base. 7. Pianos. Land at Base. 8. Broadcast radio receivers. Land at Base (except retain sufficient number for reasonable comfort). 9. Benches and stools, other than regular mess. Land at Base (except retain sufficient number for reasonable comfort). 10. Tables and chairs, other than regular mess. Land at Base (except retain sufficient number for reasonable comfort). 11. Book shelves and picture frames (wood). Land at Base. 12. Mirrors (except ones in officer's rooms and others needed for comfort). Land at Base, replace with metal. 13. Bulletin Board and bookcase glass. Land at Base. 14. Presentation silver, trophies, etc., with cases (portable). Land at Base. 15. Fenders and stage planks (except six of each and all large fenders). Land at Base. 16. Wooden gratings and broom racks. Land at Base. 17. Miscellaneous lines, tackles, barrels, drums, benches, etc. not actually needed for working ship. Land at Base. 18. Excess bright work polish. Land at Base. 19. Excess cleaning gear. Land at Base. 20. Excess trash cans. Land at Base. 21. Curtains in officer's and C.P.O. quarters. Land at Base. 22. Rugs in officer's and C.P.O. quarters. Land at Base. 23. Excess furniture in officer's and C.P.O. quarters. Land at Base (retain items only as necessary for reasonable comfort) 24. Excess personal effects of officers and men. Land at Base. 25. Cots. Land at Base (retain as necessary for additional personnel for whom bunks or hammocks not available). 26. Obsolete and excess files and publications. Land at Base. 27. Excess charts and bunting. Land at Base. 28. Spare parts in excess of actual requirements. Land at Base. 29. Decontamination Stations. Rig in accordance with Gas Defense Bill. 30. Protective Clothing. Impregnate and issue in accordance with Gas Defense Bill. 31. Paravanes and gear. Rig for streaming. 32. Life floats. Provide and lash in place. 34. Handling trucks (other than airplane). Stow below third deck. 35. Heavy, loose, or suspended articles. Lower and secure in place. 36. Brightwork and fixed canvas. Paint. 37. Battle Signal Station. Rig and equip. 38. First Aid equipment. Provide at battle stations. 39. Blanks over counterflooding valves to fuel oil and void tanks (CV2 and 3 only). Remove in accordance with Counterflooding Bill. 40. Miscellaneous items constituting fire or missile hazard. Overboard or stow below. 41. Battle Dressing Stations. Provide throughout ship as required by Battle Bill. 42. Material for emergency flight deck repair (plates and angles). Procure fifty mild steel galvanized plates 25' x 1' 10 lb. Twenty-five angles 21/2 x 21/2 x 1/4" and stow in an accessible location.
- The Strip Ship Bill covers those items which are required to be done on mobilization, together with certain additional items which it may be necessary to do at regular intervals during war but which, by virtue of the time required to accomplish them, cannot be done when material condition "B" is ordered. The bill shall be prepared to accomplish the landing and stowage of material and alteration of certain peacetime conditions, in order to prepare the ship for wartime conditions. The bill should be as definite as planning will permit. Care must be taken to avoid premature decisions with regard to items of material and work which may be subject to modification depending on the type of campaign, climate, and probable area of operations. As a drill for strip ship cannot be held, no detailed compartment nor division check-off lists need be posted. Each department will list the various items by number, the location of the item by compartment, the division responsible for action, and the disposition. The following is a list of items by number, together with disposition, and represents the minimum which should be included in the Strip Ship Bill:-
- Clear Ship Bill
- The Clear Ship Bill shall provide for placing the ship in readiness for action in all
respects with exception of watertight and airtight integrity. Each department shall list
the various items by number, the location of the item by compartment, the division
responsible for action, and the disposition. The following is a list of items by number,
together with disposition, and represents the minimum which should be included in the
Clear Ship for Action Bill:-
Item No. Item Disposition 2. Boats and cradles remaining (except motor whaleboats, whaleboats and one 50 ft. motor launch). Overboard (land if possible). 12. Mirrors (remaining). Overboard. 43. Boat booms. Overboard (land if possible). 44. Compressed gasses and other dangerous material listed in Bu Con Manual 1441 (1) (c) except those required for repair parties. Overboard. 45. Ready inflammable cleaning gear (waste, polish, rags, oil, brooms, squilgees, etc.). Overboard. 46. Opened paint and varnish drums. Overboard. 3. Flight deck and gun gallery awnings (if retained). Stow below if time available, otherwise overboard. 4. Awning fittings (if retained). Stow below if time available, otherwise overboard. 47. Anchors and chain. Secure anchors in place, strike chains and excess stoppers below. 48. Life lines and stanchions. Lower and secure in place. Use chain life lines for lashing heavy objects on deck. Secure other life lines in place with wire. 49. Booms and gangway davits. Lower and secure. 50. Loading machines. Secure with chain lashings. 51. Gangway ladders and fittings. Unrig, lash in stowage position with chain lashings. 52. Patent life buoys. Stow below third deck. 53. Fire hose. Connect and coil on deck. 54. Mess tables and benches. Stow below. 55. Current files and records, enlistment records, pay accounts, health records, typewriters, adding machines, etc. Stow below. 56. Confidential and secret publications and funds. Lock in safe and weight for overboard. 57. Bedding. Stow below. 58. Paint and oil rooms. Flood with CO2 Gas. 59. Sounding machines and platforms. Stow below. 60. Emergency rations, water and heads. Provide at battle stations. 61. Drill ammunition. Stow below. 62. Backing out slugs, muzzle bands, sub-calibre guns, bloomers, periscope covers. Stow below. 63. Hand tools not required for repair parties Stow below. 64. Mess gear (food carriers, baskets, dishes, pots, pans, etc.). Secure in place. Stow below as far as practicable. 65. Navigating equipment not needed in battle. Stow below. 66. X-Ray equipment, cabinets, mirrors, dental lights, and engines. Stow below. 67. Laboratory equipment (operating and dispensary equipment, instruments, dressings, etc.). Stow below. 68. Wind scoops and ventilating dead lights. Stow below. 69. Fuel from incinerator and blacksmith shop Drain and overboard.
- The Clear Ship Bill shall provide for placing the ship in readiness for action in all respects with exception of watertight and airtight integrity. Each department shall list the various items by number, the location of the item by compartment, the division responsible for action, and the disposition. The following is a list of items by number, together with disposition, and represents the minimum which should be included in the Clear Ship for Action Bill:-
- Damage Control Facilities
- The following material facilities are provided for the control of damage:
- For watertight integrity:- Compartmentation and compartmentation integrity.
- For control of stability:- Drainage, counter flooding, and fuel oil systems.
- For repairs and control of damage:- Tools and materials, fire main, magazine and other sprinkling systems, and the CO2 systems.
- For gas defense:- Compartmentation, compartmentation integrity, air purification, gas masks, protective clothing, alarms, and decontamination facilities.
- For care of injured:- Dressing stations and equipment of Medical Department.
- The following material facilities are provided for the control of damage:
- Descriptions of the Damage Control facilities appear in more or less detailed
form in one or more of the following publications:
- The Damage Control Book; U. S. S. Enterprise
The Damage Control Book shall contain in compact and usable form information relating to damage control, particularly the features of buoyancy, stability, list and trim. It is intended to be both a compact reference concerning the material features of the ship and a source of information from which the necessary damage control bills may be complied. These bills together with the damage control compartment check-off lists, shall be drawn up and inserted in this Damage Control Book or in a separate binder. This book or binder shall constitute the master bill for damage control as prescribed in Article 4301-3 of this chapter. Division officers shall obtain these books from the Damage Control Officer and shall be familiar with their contents.
- General Information Book
This book, as its title implies, gives essential information of the ship and its component parts and equipment. The ship is supplied with 25 copies. This book is confidential and shall be issued only by the ship's secretary.
- Ship's Plans
These are blueprints kept in the offices of the heads of departments.
- General Organization, U. S. S. Enterprise
- Department Instructions
These are the instructions issued in booklet form by the heads of departments.
- Booklet of General Plans
This is a booklet of small scale profile and general arrangement deck plans. A limited number of these booklets are available for issue by the Damage Control Officer.
- Bureau Manuals
These manuals are issued by the several bureaus of the Navy Department and contain valuable descriptive matter concerning damage control facilities.
- The Damage Control Book; U. S. S. Enterprise
- Classification of Damage Control Fittings
- All fittings which affect the watertight, airtight or fumetight integrity of
compartments and which must be set or operated in some definite way when general quarters
is sounded, or when other emergencies arise, are placed in one of five classifications.
These fittings include doors, hatches, manholes, scuttles, ventilation covers, ventilation
blowers, fuel oil valves, air escape valves, etc. The five classifications are:
- Class "X"
Class "X" includes all doors, fittings, and valves which should be closed at all times in peace or war except during such periods when inspections, cleaning, repairs, issuing of stores, etc., make it necessary that they be open. In general, "X" designates a door or fitting which may be opened when men are in a compartment or the fitting is in use, and which should be closed at all other times.
Doors and ventilation covers in storerooms and double bottoms; air test connections; sounding plates; entrances to magazines; explosion chambers, cofferdams, peak tanks and oil and water tanks; all manholes.
- Class "Y"
Class "Y" includes all doors, fittings. or valves, other than Class "X", which, without affecting the safety of the ship, execution of work, or the comfort of the crew, need only be closed after working hours.
In general this designation is used on doors and fittings in compartments which are necessarily used as daily issuing rooms; handling rooms; work shops; all compartments, tanks, and passages used frequently but not generally used at night.
- Class "Z"
This classification includes doors, fittings, valves, and ventilation covers which are necessarily open day and night in order to operate the ship but which must be closed in action or during emergencies.
In general this designation is used on access doors to living compartments and battle stations; ventilation duct covers in living compartments, fire main riser cut-outs; entrances to machinery spaces; doors which cannot be closed prior to general quarters; magazine ventilation; ventilation covers in living compartments, work shops, and other similar compartments where ventilation is necessary in order to operate the ship under cruising conditions; the minimum number of air and battle ports needed for health and living conditions.
- Class "V"
This classification includes certain doors, fittings, valves, etc., which without affecting the safety of the ship, are left open during peace cruising in order to provide convenient access, additional ventilation, and extra operating facility, but which can be closed during war cruising in order to reduce the number of doors and fittings which must be closed after general quarters is sounded.
About half the hatches to a quarter-deck; one of a pair of double doors to a living compartment; sky lights; entrances to interior spaces where activities will be secured during war cruising; all air and battle ports near the water line and as many others as possible. Those urgently needed for health and living conditions may be classed "Z".
- Class "W"
This classification, is used on doors, valves and fittings which must necessarily be opened during action in order to fight the ship. These should be kept open except in a local emergency, with the important exception of Class "W" fireroom ventilation supply openings which must never be closed. Class "W" doors, hatches, and scuttles should be closed temporarily when such closure will not effect adversely the operation or readiness of the ship or armament. Below the main deck watch must be posted at "W" doors when at general quarters. "W" doors and hatches below the water line must be reduced to minimum.
A door between two compartments, one of which contains an ammunition hoist and the other the conveyor; blower motors which supply air to the engine rooms; exhaust trunk hatches from the engine rooms; entrances to compartments containing valves, ammunition hoists, etc., to which rapid access is necessary in order to fight the ship; entrances to compartments containing magazine flood cocks or boiler stop valve reach rods; one or two hatches through the armored deck for repair parties; doors and hatches in those parts of the superstructure which cannot be made airtight; drainage valves in compartments in which men are stationed; firemain valves which control cooling water to machinery units and to machine guns.
- Class "X"
- All fittings which affect the watertight, airtight or fumetight integrity of compartments and which must be set or operated in some definite way when general quarters is sounded, or when other emergencies arise, are placed in one of five classifications. These fittings include doors, hatches, manholes, scuttles, ventilation covers, ventilation blowers, fuel oil valves, air escape valves, etc. The five classifications are:
- Standard of Compartmentation Tightness
- Every compartment of the ship has one of the following degrees of tightness:
- Oil-tightness: Symbol O. T. - Tightness such as to permit absolutely no leakage of oil under the equivalent heads of oil specified by the detailed or governing specifications. Oil-tightness is required of all boundaries to oil and gasoline tanks. In addition to defining stowage spaces for oil or gasoline, oil-tight boundaries are relied on to restrict flooding or diffusion of chemical agents in case of hull damage.
- Water-tightness: Symbol W. T.- Tightness such as to permit not more than the allowed leakage of water under the water head specified by the detailed or governing specifications. Water-tightness is required of shell plating and boundaries to water tanks and structures, closures, or fittings which may be required to restrain flooding in case of hull damage. Water-tight boundaries are also relied on to prevent diffusion of chemical agents.
- Air-tightness: Symbol A. T.- Tightness such that with no visible or discernible openings in the structure, closure, or fittings, an air pressure applied as specified shall not drop more a specified percentage in a specified time. Air-tightness is required, wherein collective protection is relied upon for protection of personnel against chemical attack. Air-tightness is also required of boundaries defining spaces where an air pressure above atmospheric is necessary for operation, such as Boiler room airlocks.
- Fume-tightness: Symbol F. T.- Tightness such that there shall be no visible or discernible openings in the structure, closure, or fitting. Fume-tightness is required of boundaries defining spaces which are to be protected against contamination by chemical spray and spaces wherein concentrations of chemical gases are to be kept to a minimum consistent with operating conditions. Fume-tightness is also required of boundaries defining spaces wherein obnoxious or harmful gases are generated, such as an isolation ward, heads, foundry, etc.
- Flame-tightness: Symbol M. T.- Tightness such that there shall be no direct path through the structure, closure or fitting whose maximum dimension in case of round or approximately round openings or whose maximum width at any point in case of rectangular or approximately rectangular openings, is greater than one one-hundredth of an inch. Flame-tightness is required of boundaries relied on to prevent the spread of fire or flames from a powder fire.
- Non-tightness: Symbol N. T.- Condition which may obtain when a structure, closure or fitting is not required to prevent or retard the passage of any fluid. Non-tightness is permitted in all boundaries not otherwise specified.
- Every compartment of the ship has one of the following degrees of tightness:
- Numbering of Compartments
- Compartments are numbered in accordance with the requirements of the General Specifications, Appendix 10. Briefly this consists of a prefix letter which designates the location longitudinally of the compartment, a number which indicates the deck level, and a suffix consisting of a number, a letter, or either or both, which indicates the nature of the compartment and whether or not it is a subdivision of a larger watertight compartment.
- The prefix is based on the well known A, B, C, and D longitudinal subdivision of the ship.
- The method of numbering decks is as follows:
Large compartments extending up several deck levels from the hold 1 - 99 Main deck 101 - 199 2nd deck 201 - 299 3rd deck 301 - 399 4th deck 401 - 499 1st platform 501 - 599 2nd platform 601 - 699 Hold 701 - 799 Inner bottom 901 - 999 Forecastle deck 0101 - 0199 Gallery deck 0201 - 0299 Flight deck 0301 - 0399 Communication platform deck 0401 - 0499 Flag bridge deck 0501- 0599 Navigation bridge deck 0601- 0699 Signal bridge deck 0701- 0799
The lowest watertight or airtight deck within a given compartment determines the number series for that compartment. Odd numbers indicate starboard compartments and even numbers, port. Center line compartments may carry either odd or even numbers.
- The suffix, when a number, indicates that the compartment is an airtight or fumetight
subdivision of a larger watertight compartment. The letters have the following significance:
A - Stores M - Magazines; spaces in which there are facilities for ammunition handling. C - Ship and fire control E - Machinery spaces T - Trunks and passages. F - Fuel oil tanks V - Voids. Gas - Gasoline spaces W - Water tanks. L - Living space; offices; heads.
- Numbering of Fittings
- Doors, hatches, and certain other openings and fittings are assigned numbers for the purpose of identification and location. This system of is the same as that applied to fire fighting equipment and is described in Chapter 35, "Fire Bill".
- Watertight Integrity - General
- Emergency Signals:
- "Close all watertight doors" by boatswain's mate.
- "Watertight Doors" by bugle.
- Secure Signals.
- "Secure" by bugle.
- "Secure" by boatswain's mate.
- Emergency Signals:
- Responsibility and reports
- The Damage Control Officer is responsible for the general watertight integrity of the ship. Heads of departments and division officers are responsible to the Damage Control Officer for the watertight integrity of their parts of the ship. Thirty minutes prior to the time for getting underway, at 1630 daily, and whenever "Watertight doors" is sounded, watertight integrity reports, signifying compliance with the watertight integrity requirements set forth below, shall be made by all division officers except the Engineer Department and the Air Department division officers, direct to the Damage Control Officer by messenger or telephone. The Engineer and the Air Department division officers shall make their reports to the Engineer Officer and the Air Officer respectively, who shall in turn make combined reports for their respective departments to the Damage Control Officer. The Damage Control Officer shall then make a combined report for the entire ship to the Officer of the Deck.
- Watertight Integrity Underway
- Prior to getting underway, all "X" and "Y" doors, (and "V" doors during war cruising), hatches, manholes, airports, scuttles, ventilation closures, and all other classified fittings affecting watertight integrity, below the third deck shall be closed with maximum tightness. If weather conditions render it advisable to secure airports on the third deck and above, the Officer of the Deck shall have the word passed, specifying the decks involved. Reports shall be made as specified in paragraph 4311-2. When getting underway after the 1630 watertight reports have been made and before "all hands" the following morning, no additional report on watertight integrity will be made unless specifically directed. Division officers shall ensure, however, that no change is made in the status of "X" and "Y" fittings (also "V" fittings during war time cruising) as previously reported at 1630, except as authorized by Article 4314.
- From "all hands" to 1630, except during the interval between the sounding of "Watertight Doors" and "Secure", and during general alarm emergencies requiring maximum watertight integrity, and when authority indicated below has been granted, "Y" fittings below the third deck may be opened temporarily to give access to essential stores, and continuously if necessary to give access to essential shops or other continuously occupied spaces; and the "X" fittings below the third deck giving access to essential stores but not to voids or fuel or diesel oil tanks, may be opened temporarily. In this connection stores which are located below the third deck and which will be required at sea, should be broken out prior to getting underway. If necessary to replenish stores while underway, storerooms shall be opened only the minimum time necessary to meet requirements.
- Watertight Integrity in Port
- From reveille to 1630, except during the interval between the sounding of "Watertight Doors" and "Secure", and during other emergencies requiring maximum watertight integrity, "Y" fittings may be left open. At 1630 these fittings below the third deck shall be closed and no "X" or "Y" fittings shall be opened during the night without permission from the Officer of the Deck. The Officer of the Deck shall assure himself that the fittings opened are secured when the necessity for opening them has passed.
- Authority Necessary for Opening Watertight Fittings:
- During war cruising and whenever "Condition" watches are set, permission to open "X", "Y" and "V" fittings shall be obtained only from the Damage Control Watch Officer in Damage Control Central. The Damage Control Watch Officer shall keep the Officer of the Deck informed of the watertight integrity status of the ship.
- When "Condition" watches are not set, permission to open watertight fittings
class "X", "Y", and "V" shall be obtained from heads of
departments or the Officer of the Deck as specified in the following table with the
restriction that such permission shall never be granted when the ship is underway during
fog or maneuvers, when entering or leaving port, in the interval between the sounding of
"Watertight Doors" and "Secure", and during general alarm emergencies
requiring maximum watertight integrity.
Location of Ship Time Class of Fitting Authority to open,
"Condition" watches not set
Sea Day X Head of Department and 0. 0. D. Sea Day Y Head of Department and O. 0. D. Sea Day V* Head of Department and 0. 0. D. Sea Night X Officer of the Deck. Sea Night Y Officer of the Deck. Sea Night V* Officer of the Deck. Port Day X Head of Department. Port Day Y ................... Port Night X Officer of the Deck. Port Night Y Officer of the Deck. *Permission required only while at sea during war.
- All officers and petty officers must appreciate the importance of intimate personal knowledge of all that effects the watertight integrity of that part of the ship entrusted to their care, whether it be watertight doors or hatches, fire main cutout valves, sluice valves, pumps, or ventilation ducts. The maintenance of watertight integrity is vital.
- Closing and opening Watertight Fittings
- The proper procedure for closing and opening watertight doors, hatches and airports
is as follows:
- To Close - Engage dogs on opposite side of hinges first, then work toward the hinge side and engage those dogs nearest the hinge last.
- To Open - Loosen dogs on the hinge side first, then work toward the opposite side and disengage dogs on that side last.
- Dog wrenches shall not be removed from place except for their proper use with doors or hatches.
- All manhole plates to double bottoms and voids shall be closed, bolted or dogged tight, except when opened for necessary work.
- The operation of scuttles installed in large hatches or doors shall be governed by the same provisions as are made for the operation of the hatches or doors in which the scuttles are located. When such hatches or doors are closed for watertight integrity or other reasons, passage through them shall be via the scuttles.
- All persons closing hatches below which there are other watertight doors or hatches shall assure themselves that dogs are set up on the lower doors and hatches in accordance with this bill.
- Members of closing groups shall take particular care that no one is shut in storerooms, inner bottoms, or passages. The same persons who close watertight doors and hatches shall open them at "Secure".
- All persons stationed to close watertight doors and hatches shall immediately report any damage to dogs, hinges, or any watertight feature, and shall note whether or not rubber gaskets are clean and in good condition.
- Men detailed to close a group of watertight doors shall go to the farthest compartment on the list (unless the doors are locked in which case to the farthest open door or hatch) and close all doors and hatches along the route laid out to be closed by them.
- While closing, the man in charge shall check the routes of escape to see that all doors, hatches, and airports have been closed and that no one is left in the compartments. Division officers shall assign men from each section to every group in order that there may always be some men in each group on board.
- The proper procedure for closing and opening watertight doors, hatches and airports is as follows:
- Material Conditions - General
- To close all openings properly and to set valves in the drainage, fire, ventilating, and other systems, requires one or more hours in a large ship with all hands available. All hands will not be available for this work after "General Quarters" is sounded; because, in the first place, many gun crews will be standing "Condition" watches at their guns; and in the second place the remaining guns must be manned without delay necessary for closing openings. Consequently the final closing of many parts of the ship must fall upon the repair parties which have only a limited number of men.
- Everything cannot be closed in advance of general quarters; living requirements and accessibility demand that certain doors, ventilating and flushing systems, remain open until the crew actually goes to battle stations.
- In view of the above, it is evident that the closing of the ship for battle must be
carried out in two stages, the first to include everything which can be accomplished
prior to general quarters and the second to include the last minute measures which must
be postponed until the crew are actually at battle stations. The names given these
- First Stage: Material condition "B" (Baker)
- Second Stage: Material condition "A" (Afirm)
- Material Condition "B" (Baker)
- Emergency: "Rally by Sections" followed by two blasts on bugle. "All divisions set material condition Baker" by boatswain's mate.
- Secure: "Secure" - by bugle. "Secure from material condition Baker" by boatswain's mate.
- Material condition "B" represents the condition required at all times at sea during war when accessibility and living requirements preclude maintaining flotation and stability factors at a maximum. It shall also be maintained during war in port when danger from a mine, bomb, or torpedo exists, or when the probability of going to general quarters may be expected without further notice. Generally speaking it will be set about thirty minutes before gun crews are sent to general quarters or are posted in "Condition" watches.
- Departments and divisions shall comply with all of the following provisions, which
are applicable to their parts of the ship:
- All "X", "Y", and "V" fittings must be secured. (See Article 4307). This closes up the ship to the maximum extent consistent with living conditions. In this connection it must be remembered that material condition "B" may last for several days. Consequently it may become necessary to open temporarily some closed fittings. Permission to do this shall be in accordance with preceding watertight integrity instructions.
- Fuel oil shall be distributed so as to give maximum protection against underwater attack, and valves of the fuel oil system shall be set (open or closed) so as to insure maximum water-tight integrity.
- The valves of the Air Compressor system shall be set so as to provide low pressure air for all facilities requiring it. The cut-out valves on the high pressure will be closed on the first platform deck, forward and aft, so that damage will be minimized if lines should be out.
- The valves of the drainage system shall be set so as to insure maximum use of the system without endangering water-tight integrity.
- The valves of the fire main, flushing and flooding systems shall be similarly set. If practicable some flushing systems shall be secured.
- The outlets of the voice tube system shall be so secured as to obtain maximum air-tight integrity.
- Interior gasoline stowages shall be placed in battle condition.
- Gasoline in drums shall be placed on racks ready for tripping when gunfire is opened.
- Steam shall be shut off all unused lines. Preparation shall be made to operate boiler stop and safety valves from outside boiler compartments.
- Report that the material condition is set shall be made to Damage Control Central if manned, otherwise to the Damage Control Officer. (See Article 4320).
- Material Condition "A" (Afirm)
- Emergency: "Rally by Sections" followed by one blast on bugle. "All divisions set material condition Afirm", by boatswain's mate.
- Secure: "Secure" by bugle. "Secure from material condition Afirm", by boatswain's mate.
- Material Condition Afirm represents the maximum water-tight integrity of the ship. Access and living conditions are secondary to the requirements of water-tight and air-tight integrity.
- Condition Afirm will be set after the ship is at general quarters.
- Units of the Battle Organization shall set all fittings immediately adjacent to their battle station. Access routes used by only one unit in manning one particular battle station shall be closed by that unit enroute to its battle station. All other fixtures shall be set by the repair parties.
- Each unit of the ship's battle organization shall report to its control station when in Condition Afirm.
- Fire Control, Ship Control, Air Control, Engine Control, and Communication Control shall report to Damage Control at Central Station when each of its subordinate units have reported in Condition Afirm. Damage Control shall report to Conn when the ship is in Condition Afirm. (See Article 4320).
All "X", "Y", "y", and "Z" fittings must be closed or stopped. "W" fittings must be open. A hatch, door or airport is considered properly closed only when all dogs and nuts are sufficiently engaged in their bearing surfaces so that they will not slip off and the knife edges are held to the gasket sufficiently to prevent leakage. Air test and sounding tube caps are considered properly closed when a wrench is required to loosen the cap.
- When gunfire actually opens, the paint lockers and other spaces containing inflammable liquids shall be flooded with one or two inches of water. The ventilation to the gasoline storage compartments shall be closed and the compartments flooded with CO2 gas.
- Steam shall be shut off heating circuits to radiators, pantries, galleys and laundry.
- Material Condition "C" (Cast)
This shall be the normal peacetime cruising condition. The water-tight integrity provisions shall be as prescribed in Article 4312. Division officers shall inspect their parts of the ship after securing from Material Condition "Baker" or "Afirm" and report to the First Lieutenant's Office when Material Condition "Cast" is set.
- Damage Control - General
- Damage control, as defined at the beginning of this chapter, is effected primarily by the services of the entire ship's company in properly preparing the ship for action; i.e., by carrying out the requirements set forth in the Strip Ship, Clear Ship and Material Condition Bills; secondly, it is effected by the services of the repair parties and battle dressing parties coordinated and controlled by the Damage Control Officer in Damage Control Central.
- All personnel shall assist in attaining the ends of damage control by:
- Reporting damage.
- By taking whatever remedial action is practicable, consistent with the most effective performance of their primary battle duties.
- Damage Control Stations
- Damage Control Central. The Damage Control Officer shall be in charge as regards hull damage, stability control, and gas defense. His assistants shall be the Assistant Damage Control Officer, a stability control officer, a ship control officer, and a number of men who shall perform duties as talkers, recorders, etc.
- Flight Deck Repair Party (Repair I)
- Station: Flight Deck Compartment B-0307-E.
- In Charge: Air Department Boatswain.
- Zone: Main Deck and above except Wardroom country in "A" part of the ship.
- Forward Repair Party (Repair II)
- Station: Wardroom passage A-306-L.
- In Charge: Construction Department Boatswain.
- Zone: "A" Compartments below main deck plus Wardroom country on 01 and 02 decks.
- After Repair Party (Repair III)
- Station: Crew's messroom D-302-1LM.
- In Charge: Officer as designated.
- Zone: "D" compartments below main deck.
- Amidships Repair Party (Repair IV)
- Station: Crew's messroom C-302-1LM.
- In Charge: Officer as designated.
- Zone: "B" and "C" compartments below main deck.
- Engineer Repair Party (Repair V)
- Station: Crew's messroom C-302-1LM.
- In Charge: Engineer Department officer as designated.
- Zone: Machinery spaces.
- Ordnance Repair Party (Repair VI)
- Station: Controlling Unit, A-306-L.
- In Charge: Ordnance Gunner.
- Zone: All magazines, ammunition supply facilities and armaments.
- Gasoline Repair Party (Repair VII)
- Station: Main Deck.
- In Charge: Air Department Machinists.
- Zone: Hangar and gasoline system.
- Damage Control Lookouts
- Station: Forward and after battle lookout stations. These lookouts are the regular battle lookouts and they shall, in addition to their other duties, report any damage observed to central station via navigating bridge or secondary conning tower 1-JV telephones.
- Repair Party Composition and Organization
- Repair I shall consist of aviation and deck ratings, electrician's mates, radiomen and deck artificers. Repair II, III, and IV shall consist of deck artificers, engineer artificers, electrician's mates and storekeepers. Repair V shall consist of engineer ratings, Repair VI of gunner's mates, artificers and electrician's mates, Repair VII of aviation ratings. Hospital corpsmen shall be detailed to each repair party except Repair VI. The subdivision of repair parties for purposes of Condition Watches is given in the Battle Organization.
- Duties of Repair Parties
- Repair parties must be prepared to take the following action in their own and
- Maintain water-tight and air-tight integrity by closing those "Z" facilities which have to be assigned to repair parties.
- Guard openings which must be used on access routes, or which for other reasons must be opened temporarily. Patrol unoccupied parts of the ship.
- Repair damage to facilities which are designed to maintain water-tight integrity, by shoring, plugging and caulking of bulkheads and decks, by resetting valves, and by blank flanging or plugging lines running between water-tight subdivisions of the ship.
- Sound, drain, pump, counterflood, or shift liquid in tanks, voids or other spaces. (Repair II, III, IV and V).
- Stream and rig in paravanes. (Repair II, III, IV).
- Make necessary repairs to primary and auxiliary methods of steering. (Repair II, III, IV, and V).
- Clear away wreckage which is interfering with the operation of the planes, battery, ship or fire control stations, or is fouling the rudder, propellers, or sides of the ship.
- Maintain and make emergency repairs to battle service systems such as ammunition supply, ventilation supply, high and low pressure air lines, communication systems and cooling water systems.
- Fight fires by smothering, by quenching with water, chemicals, or steam, by isolation, or by a combination of these means.
- Maintain the integrity of the fire main, get water pressure to the desired location, and repair or by-pass damaged sections of the fire main.
- Clean up spaces contaminated by chemical warfare agents.
- Repair damage to the main propelling machinery, boilers, and their auxiliaries. (Repair V, only).
- Rapidly flood or sprinkle magazines upon order, isolating magazines in the same group when it is not necessary to flood entire groups. Make repairs to battery including the supply and renewal of parts. Make repairs to the ammunition supply facilities. (Repair VI, only).
- Fight gasoline fires in the hangar. Safeguard and make repairs to all parts of gasoline system. (Repair VII).
- Repair parties must be prepared to take the following action in their own and adjacent zones:
- Damage Control Access Routes
- Normally repair parties shall use the quick operating doors on the port side of the third deck, which is the damage control deck, for fore-and-aft access abaft bulkhead 38. Repair party personnel shall guard these doors, opening them temporarily only to permit passage. For access to compartments forward of bulkhead 38 the route from the third deck shall be: Up at frame 50, starboard; forward on second deck; up at frame 19, port, to main or forecastle deck. Repair party personnel shall guard the "Z" doors along this route.
- Medical Department Battle Organization
- The Medical Officer shall be responsible for the care of the wounded and the disposal
of the dead. Battle Dressing Stations shall be located as follows:
- Emergency Battle Dressing Station (Dressing I).
- Station: B-0209-L.
- Zone: Gallery deck, flight deck and island.
- Forward Battle Dressing Station (Dressing II).
- Station: Wardroom Passage A-306-L (at Repair II).
- Zone: "A" compartments below gallery deck.
- After (Main) Battle Dressing Station (Dressing III).
- Station: Sick Bay.
- Zone: Entire Hangar and all "D" compartments below the gallery deck.
- Amidships Battle Dressing Station (Dressing IV).
- Station: Crew's messroom D-302-L.
- Zone: "B" and "C" compartments below the gallery deck.
- Emergency Battle Dressing Station (Dressing I).
- The Medical Officer shall be responsible for the care of the wounded and the disposal of the dead. Battle Dressing Stations shall be located as follows:
- Composition and Organization of Battle Dressing Parties
- These parties shall consist of medical or dental officers, in charge, and of hospital corpsmen and stretcher bearers. The stretcher bearers normally shall be bandsmen.
- Duties of Battle Dressing Parties
- Hospital corpsmen, accompanied by stretcher bearers shall, during lulls in an engagement, proceed to the scene of reported casualties and bring the wounded to the battle dressing stations. During actual engagement it is very desirable to move suffering men away from a battle station because of the beneficial effect on morale and for their own succor. At gun stations actively engaged it will be rarely possible for the gun's crews to do more than set the wounded aside. It shall be the duty of dressing stations to seek out such men by using quick opening doors and escape scuttles in hatches and rendering them minimum first aid for the control of hemorrhage, the relief of pain and the prevention of infection. In this work the dressing station personnel shall be assisted by repair parties sent to assist. Such aid shall also be rendered by men at battle stations if in so doing the battle station suffers no loss in that offensive power required at the moment.
- During lulls or other favorable opportunity, the wounded shall be moved by the most expeditious means. Stretchers may be used for fore-and-aft transportation along the flight, main and third decks. Shoulder carrying will be required when necessary to pass from one deck level to another except that the forward bomb elevators, when not in use, may be used for lowering the wounded.
- Decontamination Stations
- The Medical Officer shall maintain four decontamination stations located as follows:
- No. 1 - Starboard: Compartment A-0203-L (Forward).
- No. 2 - Port: Compartment A-0204-L (Forward).
- No. 3 - Starboard: Compartment D-0203-L (Aft).
- No. 4 - Port: Compartment D-0202-L (Aft).
- Personnel contaminated with vesicant gas shall proceed along the flight deck or gallery passageways to the nearest decontamination station. Passage through interior parts of the ship by contaminated personnel shall be avoided when possible.
- The Medical Officer shall provide neutralizing solutions, soap, towels, and other necessary equipment and shall station a trained attendant from the Medical Department at each decontamination station.
- A suitable quantity of impregnated clothing shall be kept at hand at each contamination station.
- The Medical Officer shall maintain four decontamination stations located as follows:
- Chemical Warfare Defense
- Duties of Officers
- The First Lieutenant and Damage Control Officer shall be the Chemical Warfare Officer. He shall be responsible for the organization and training of the ship's company in all matters pertaining to chemical warfare.
- The Assistant Damage Control Officer and Assistant Chemical Warfare Officer shall ordinarily be the officer in the Construction Department next in seniority to the First Lieutenant. He shall be responsible for the custody, distribution, and upkeep of all chemical defense equipment.
- Division Officers shall:
- Be responsible for the proper care and upkeep of all chemical defense equipment issued to their divisions.
- Familiarize their divisions with the warning signals for gas attacks.
- Familiarize their divisions with the general plan for ship board defense against chemical attack.
- Require their divisions to be familiar with the properties, means of identification, physiological effects, and first aid treatment for recognized chemical warfare agents.
- Require their divisions to be proficient in the use and care of gas masks and other protective equipment.
- Be responsible that their divisions are imbued with a high degree of gas discipline.
- Familiarize their divisions with decontaminating equipment and procedure.
- Appoint the division chemical warfare petty officer. Division officers of divisions 1, 2, 3, 4, R, V-1, V-2, A, B, E, and M, shall each detail a squad of twelve men (3 from each section) and a petty officer to function as a division decontaminating squad.
- The Medical Officer shall be responsible for:
- The treatment of chemical warfare casualties.
- The instruction of all personnel in physiological effects of chemical warfare agents and first aid to chemical warfare casualties.
- The maintenance of assisting personnel and necessary decontaminating supplies at prescribed decontamination stations.
- The inspection of food and water supplies as soon as practicable after gas attack.
- The Supply Officer shall:
- Use all means available to prevent contamination of food supplies.
- Render the Medical Officer such assistance and cooperation as may be necessary in the inspection of food supplies after a gas attack.
- Duties of Officers
- Gas Defense Plan
- The general plan of defense against chemical attack involves the following
requirements and objectives:
- During Material condition "Baker" the external envelope of the ship shall be closed as completely as possible except for ventilation openings which can be closed instantly by remote control.
- During Material condition "Afirm" all ventilation covers except those supplying air to certain hot machinery spaces shall be closed. Covers to hot machinery spaces other than the fire rooms shall be closed temporarily for the duration of a gas attack and opened as soon as the danger of gas contamination has passed. The ventilation systems supplying air to these spaces are controllable from the spaces ventilated.
- Exposed personnel and decontamination squads shall be protected by gas masks and suitable protective clothing. All personnel shall carry gas masks while at general quarters and shall be prepared to don them immediately upon the sounding of the gas alarm. All personnel shall wear impregnated clothing continuously where there exists the likelihood of gas attack. Central station, I. C. room and Switchboard rooms are equipped for the collective protection of personnel stationed therein. The conning tower is provided with special ventilation for use during gas attacks.
- Decontamination stations, easily accessible from exposed battle stations, are provided for decontamination of personnel who have been contaminated by vesicant chemicals.
- Decontamination squads are organized from repair parties and certain units of the ship's administrative organization [see Article 4330-1 (c) (g)] for the purpose of cleaning up areas contaminated with warfare chemicals.
- Compartments for the "Resting up" of the crew while decontamination squads are working and before the ship becomes safe for occupancy, are designated, provided with means of safe ventilation, and with means of being placed under a low positive air pressure.
- A distinctive gas alarm is used consisting of the steady sounding of a high pitched buzzer (General Alarm Buzzer) together with the passing of the word "Gas" throughout the ship. This alarm is sounded only if gas fumes are about to permeate the ship generally.
- Procedure for Defense Against Gas Attack
The procedure for defense against gas attack is as follows:
- When attacking planes are sighted notify Bridge (Conn).
- Bridge (Conn) pass word over loud speaker "Stand by for gas, set gas tight envelope of the ship."
- Repair I Decontamination Squad assemble equipment at Repair I Station.
- Bridge (Conn), after receiving word of location of the gassed area, and after attack has passed, pass the following word over loudspeaker: "Repair I Decontamination Squad report to (location of gassed area)."
- The general plan of defense against chemical attack involves the following requirements and objectives: